One of the most critical components of IBM Servers is the Storage Subsystem which includes the RAID controller and the Hard Disk Drives (HDD). Typical HDD capacities found in today’s IBM Server Systems range from 2.25GB to 9.1GB (1Giga Byte = 1 Billion bytes). RAID 5 and RAID 1 architecture technology provides the ability to continue operation in the event of HDD failures and provides the ability to rebuild lost data. Although HDD reliability has greatly improved in the past five years, the areal densities (defined below) have grown at a staggering 60% compound growth rate during that same time.
Due to the complexity of HDD’s and the nature of the technology, media defects are a fact of life in ALL HDD’s manufactured today. However, HDD’s employ effective error correction techniques and data threshold analysis and reassignments to help prevent data loss. This paper will explain the reason why media defects occur initially and why they may occur throughout the life of the drive.
Thermal paste helps strengthen the encryption of your CPU, have you ever read or heard this claim before? As for me and in full honestly I have not. In fact this is not true at all as there is no relationship between thermal pastes and encryption in any way, but I’m making a post on this issue just to waste my and your time in this crap. So I advise you not to continue reading because you will get really bored. So back to our topic, thermal paste and encryption. How can this be possible? And how can a thermal paste increase the encryption of your CPU? This is what you might not understand at all in your life.
Solid state drives (SSD) have been a very popular alternative to the traditional mechanical hard drive (HDD) to the extent that the ultimate hope for every computer user is to get a new system that sports a solid state drive. But on the other hand, many of those users are not aware of the basic knowledge on this super-fast storage technology and may not imagine that this flash-based technology comes in different form factors that fit almost every computer system.
I will try here to help you understand something good about solid state drives and why they are the best storage upgrade you can do to your computer to take it to the next level of performance and speed. I will also speak a bit about the different types of SSDs so you may enlighten yourself better on this amazing technology.
What types of SSDs are there?
There are varied types of SSDs out there, some are external solid state drives and some are internal. They also come in different form factors, some come in SATA III, while others come in mSATA and the rest in the newest interface: M.2. You can find more about some of these drives on : Storage Realm
There you can find also the best solid state drives that you can get for your desktop or laptop computer, alongside with the best hard disk drives that are still used and demanded on an escalating level.
Below you can see a picture of solid state drive and the traditional hard drive, hope you’ll enjoy this scene.
A picture that gathers a solid state drive (SSD) with the mechanical hard disk drive (HDD)
That said. I strongly recommend using an SSD instead of an HDD in portable computer systems, because SSDs boast of high portability and it is shockproof and more durable that hard drives.
Turbo MX-2 is a high conductive and low resistance compound for components that require the best thermal dissipation. MX-2 is ideally suited for use in CPU, GPU cooling and other applications between power semiconductor components and heat sinks where high thermal conductivity is critical. Since the MX-2 compound does not contain any metal particles, there are no problems regarding electrical conductivity and capacitance. In contrast to silver and copper compounds, contact with electrical traces, pins, and leads cannot result in any damage. Curing and bleeding of the compound is not possible. In contrast to metal or silicon pastes, this compound does not show decreasing performance over time, does not need to be reapplied and has a durability of at least 8 years.
Arctic Silver 5 is one of the latest, most advanced, and best performing thermal greases available on the market. Sold in 3.5 or 12-gram packages, Arctic Silver 5 can be used on five to 40 processors, depending on the size of the processor and the amount you purchase. The compound consists of 3 different silver molecules, sub-micron zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, and boron nitrate particles suspended in polysynthetic oils. The particles increase thermal performance and long- term stability of processors. The compound is designed for easy application from the tube, and increased performance after application. During the first few thermal cycles – the process of compound heating and cooling – Arctic Silver 5 will thin out over the processor and heatsink, filling in microscopic valleys and eliminating imperfections. After the compound has thinned, it will thicken until it reaches a final consistency after 50 to 200 hours. Once Arctic Silver 5 has arrived at its final consistency, the drop in temperature is quite noticeable; often two to ten degrees Celsius. This drop in temperature will yield better overclocks and improve system stability and longevity.
Thermal grease consists of a polymerizable liquid matrix and large volume fractions of electrically insulating, but thermally conductive filler. Typical matrix materials are epoxies, silicones, urethanes, and acrylates, although solvent-based systems, hot-melt adhesives, and pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes are also available. Aluminum oxide, boron nitride, zinc oxide, and increasingly aluminum nitride are used as fillers for these types of adhesives. The filler loading can be as high as 70–80 wt %, and the fillers raise the thermal conductivity of the base matrix from 0.17–0.3 watts per metre Kelvin or W/(mK), up to about 2 W/(mK).
In this review PCSTATS will be testing the 256GB Crucial M4 SSD, a 6Gb/s SATA III drive rated by the manufacturer for read speeds of up to 500MB/s and write speeds of 260MB/s (sequential). Crucial’s M4 SSD uses 25nm MLC NAND Flash and the same Marvell controller that Intel relies on in several of its better known solid state drives. In the hierarchical world of Solid State Drives, Crucial’s CT256M4SSD2 SSD slots into the upper-mainstream region – it’s fast, yet it’s not the fastest (or most expensive).
Looking at the numbers, Crucial’s M4 SSD is spec’d for 4KB random reads at 45,000 IOPS and 4KB random writes at 50,000 IOPS — placing it a hair slower than the OCZ Vertex 3 PCSTATS tested here. Under the Crucial M4’s aluminum cover we find 256GB of Micron Multi-Level Cell NAND Flash, 256MB of Micron DRAM for the cache and a Marvell 88SS9174-BLD2 controller.
Earlier this year Intel introduced its second SandForce based SSD: the Intel SSD 330. While Intel had previously reserved the 5xx line for 3rd party controllers, the 330 marks the first time Intel has used something other than its own branded controller in a mainstream or 3-series drive.
I don’t doubt that I’ll eventually get the story of how we got here. Apparently there’s a good one behind why Intel’s sequential write speed was capped at 100MB/s in the early days of the X25-M’s controller. Regardless of how, this is where we are today: every new Intel SSD, with the exception of the high-end PCIe solution, is now powered by SandForce’s SF-2281 controller and not Intel’s own silicon.
NAND Flash memory stores data in an array of memory cells made from floating-gate transistors. Insulated by an oxide layer are two gates, the Control Gate (CG, top) and the Floating Gate (FG, bottom). Electrons flow freely between the CG and the Channel (see diagram to the right) when a voltage is applied to either entity, attracted in the direction to which the voltage is applied. To program a cell, a voltage is applied at the CG, attracting electrons upwards. The floating gate, which is electrically isolated by an insulating layer, traps electrons as they pass through on their way to the CG. They can remain there for up to years at a time under normal operating conditions. To erase a cell, a voltage is applied at the opposite side (the Channel) while the CG is grounded, attracting electrons away from the floating gate and into the Channel. To check the status of a cell, a high voltage is applied to the CG. If the floating gate holds a charge (electrons are trapped there), the threshold voltage of the cell is altered, affecting the signal emanating from the CG as it travels through to the Channel. The precise amount of current required to complete the circuit determines the state of the cell. All of this electrical activity effectively wears out the physical structure of the cell over time. Thus, each cell has a finite lifetime, measured in terms of Program/Erase (P/E) cycles and affected by both process geometry (manufacturing technique) and the number of bits stored in each cell. The complexity of NAND storage necessitates some extra management processes, including bad block management, wear leveling, garbage collection (GC), and Error Correcting Code (ECC), all of which is managed by the device firmware through the SSD controller.
The SanDisk Extreme II solid-state drive (SSD) has a lot more going for it than just being 2.5mm thinner than the previous SanDisk Extreme.
In my testing, the new and trim SSD offered fast performance, comparable to that of even the fastest consumer-grade SSDs, while costing well less than $1 per gigabyte. The drive can work with both laptops and desktops, but unfortunately, doesn’t come included with a drive bay converter to fit easily in a desktop, which is its only shortcoming, and a minor one.
A thermal paste is one of the most significant and essential elements in any CPU cooling structure. Without it your CPU will become very hot to the extent that its transistors will burn and get out of action, that’s because the CPU cannot transmit the generated heat to the mounted heat sink over it, and this results in the remaining of this high temperature inside the CPU without finding a proper outlet to get dissipated. There is where a thermal paste finds its essential role in this structure and help minimizing the high temperature as much as possible to let the CPU run at its top performance without any fear of heat increment.